Moreover, employees working in NYC had a mean age of 39.6 compared to 42.6 Celastrol among employees in the two other regions combined ( em P /em ? ?0.05). 367 employees scheduled an antibody test; 325 participants received the test and had complete lab data available. The remaining 42 were presumed to be no-shows for their appointments, either due to scheduling conflicts or logistical issues. Measures and Hypotheses The Mouse monoclonal to CD13.COB10 reacts with CD13, 150 kDa aminopeptidase N (APN). CD13 is expressed on the surface of early committed progenitors and mature granulocytes and monocytes (GM-CFU), but not on lymphocytes, platelets or erythrocytes. It is also expressed on endothelial cells, epithelial cells, bone marrow stroma cells, and osteoclasts, as well as a small proportion of LGL lymphocytes. CD13 acts as a receptor for specific strains of RNA viruses and plays an important function in the interaction between human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and its target cells study relied on several key measures to address the study objective of documenting sero-prevalence, prior COVID-19 testing and symptom experience, and potential risk factors associated with sero-prevalence. The primary outcome of interest was a binary indicator of whether the participant tested positive for COVID-19 antibodies, as collected from the lab data. For descriptive purposes, binary indicators of prior COVID-19 testing and symptom experience were derived from survey questions 1 to 12 (see Appendix 1). We tested hypotheses in three areas: race/ethnicity; potential work-related exposures; and geographic region. Given existing evidence on racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 risk,5 we hypothesized that non-White employees would be at a greater risk for testing positive for antibodies, controlling for age and biological sex (Hypothesis 1). To examine potential work-related exposure, we used question 16 (work location) to test the hypothesis that employees who worked exclusively on-site during the pandemic would be at a greater risk for testing positive (Hypothesis 2a). We also used question 22 (job position) to identify employees who would have had direct contact with patients during the pandemic, with input from Sun River’s human resource department; we tested the hypothesis that employees with direct patient contact would be at a greater risk for testing positive for Celastrol antibodies (Hypothesis 2b). Finally, we examined the geographic region where the employee worked, derived from the office location where they scheduled their antibody test. We hypothesized that employees working in the NYC region would be at a greater risk for testing positive, given that NYC was the epicenter of the U.S. Celastrol COVID-19 outbreak in the spring of 2020 (Hypothesis 3).6 Analysis Descriptive statistics were used to summarize characteristics of the sample, antibody results, and prior COVID-19 symptoms and testing experience. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used to examine bivariate relationships between key variables and to identify potential confounding. We used bivariate and multivariable regression to test the aforementioned hypotheses and to control for potential Celastrol confounders. Log-binomial regressions were fitted to calculate prevalence ratios, since Celastrol odds ratios could potentially overestimate the effects in a cross-sectional epidemiological study.7C10 As a sensitivity analysis, we also fitted the models using Poisson regression with robust standard errors; no substantive differences were found between the log-binomial and Poisson regressions in either the estimates generated or the 95% confidence intervals. All regressions were fitted using Stata generalized linear models (glm).10 RESULTS Participant Characteristics and Potential Risk Factors Participant demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for COVID-19 exposure are shown in Table ?Table1.1. Study participants were on average 42?years old, with ages ranging from 20 to 77, and 86% were female. The sample was racially diverse, with 13.5% Black or African American, 45.5% Hispanic or Latino, 4.8% Hispanic/Latino and another racial/ethnic group, 5.6% Asian, and 29.4% White colored. TABLE 1 Participant Characteristics and Potential Risk Factors ( em N /em ?=?378) thead %/Mean (SD) /thead Female (biological sex)84.1%Age, mean (SD)41.9 (12.6)Age (categorical)?20C2916.9%?30C3930.2%?40C4925.4%?50C5915.9%?60+11.6%Race/ethnicity?Black or African American13.5%?Hispanic or Latino45.5%?Hispanic/Latino and another racial/ethnic group4.8%?Asian5.6%?White colored29.4%?Additional1.3%5 most commonly reported job groups?Patient representative/navigator16.9%?Medical assistant13.2%?Nursing (including registered and licensed practical nurses)13.2%?Management11.1%?Care manager8.5%Direct contact with patients?Yes65.3%?Typically yes, but transitioned to remote due to pandemic12.2%?No22.5%Work location since the start of the U.S. COVID-19 epidemic?On-site only53.7%?Remote only11.6%?Combination of on-site and remote34.7%Contact with a person who tested positive for COVID-19 (outside of work while wearing PPE)?Yes37.3%?No36.8%?Unsure25.9%Geographic region (based on em N /em ?=?367 who scheduled a blood draw)?New York City26.4%?Hudson Valley42.2%?Long Island31.3% Open in a separate window The 5 most commonly reported job categories were patient representative/navigator, medical assistant, nursing (including registered and licensed practical nurses), management (including medical director, administrator, legal, finance, procurement, marketing, and human resources), and care manager. Nearly two thirds (65.3%) of the sample worked in positions with direct patient contact, and 53.7% worked exclusively on site throughout the pandemic. About one third (37.3%) reported that they had contact with a person who had tested positive for COVID-19 (outside of the place of work while wearing protective products), and another 25.9% were unsure. About one quarter of the sample (26.4%) worked in the NYC region, the epicenter.
November 20, 2022